Stand Watie was a Cherokee Indian who served as a Brigadier General in the Confederate States of America. He commanded the Indian Cavalry of the Trans Mississippi Army. He was later commissioned as a Colonel in charge of the First Cherokee Mounted Rifles. After the forcible expulsion and relocation of Cherokees and Seminole Indians to Oklahoma in the 1830s, the Cherokee Nation voted to support the Confederacy. This was probably because the United States government was responsible for the expulsion.
As a General he commanded two regiments of Cherokee Rifles and three divisions of Osage, Cherokee and Seminoles. In September 1863 he and another Confederate commander, Richard Montgomery Gano, captured a Union supply train full of over one million dollars of goods and supplies. He also was noted for his bravery and leadership in the Battle of Pea Ridge in Arkansas. The Cherokee Rifles were formidable and successfully kept Union troops out of large sections of North and East Texas. On June 23, 1865, months after the surrender at Appomattox, he signed a cease fire agreements with a Union general and became the very last Confederate to surrender.