Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, and Florida were the first 11 states to leave the United States of America in 1861. Jefferson Davis famously declared that “We seek no aggrandizement, no concession of any kind from the States for which were lately confederated; all we ask is to be let alone.” Yet three border slave states had not joined the new country, Maryland, Kentucky, and Missouri.
This secession had to happen. The south and its managers and legislators and business leaders were fully vested in the notion that the US was essentially a slave holding republic that made good bank shipping corn, cotton and other materials to European buyers. The election of Abraham Lincoln was an existential threat to the Confederacy. The strategy in the South then was to put a border around its 750,000 square miles and apply a counterweight to Northern troop build ups that would otherwise invade and subjugate the south.
The humiliation to a culture so steeped in pride and tradition was unconscionable. To be subjugated by these “Damn Yankees”, oh banish the thought. Fortunately for the Confederacy, the interior of the new country harbored few antagonists and the south had firm control and interior line of communication inside virtually all of its territory. So there would be fewer insurgencies, and less guerrilla warfare as a real threat than a battlefront where competing sides lived in proximity with each other in a patchwork quilt. The only enemy soldiers inside Confederate territory were at Ft. Pickens and Fort Monroe in D.C. And Virginia. What a tremendous advantage to begin a war with an army already trained and deployed and motivated. And what an advantage that they had only one front to fight on.
Another unusual fact about the mentality of the Confederacy was adapted in their own Constitution: the Confederated States of America were not a single country. Rather they were a confederation of independent states. Essentially each one was its own country.
Shelby Foote once noted that the North was so rich that when they started fighting there was little possibility the South had. Once Ulysses S Grant became the Union Military commander Foote remarks “I think that the North fought that war with one hand behind its back,” said Foote. If the Confederacy ever had come close to winning on the battlefield, “the North simply would have brought that other arm out from behind its back. I don’t think the South ever had a chance to win that war.”
The fact of the matter is that Confederacy could have won the war. Not on the battlefield, but in a world of nations. All they needed was one extra national entity to recognize the Confederacy.
The North had the industry, the population, the riches, and of course, the moral high ground. History played out here the way it should have.